It’s evidence that some scribes sought to preserve the flow of Paul’s argument about prophecy by moving these two verses to the end. The Greeks and Romans were pretty keen on education. A prophet must submit to the evaluation of other prophets. They do not need to be changed. Ciampa and Rosner’s Pillar Commentary on 1 Corinthians is probably the best resource available on this text to my knowledge (for those who want further study). We were going overtime. When Paul uses the word shame in 1 Corinthians 14:35, do you think he is specifically talking about the woman’s questions? And the women are to do so out of deference to male headship. But class came into it too. See here.). Just as additional context, for those of us who grew up with a set Order of Service printed on a bulletin everyone received upon entering the church, or faith traditions that follow a liturgy to the letter, it’s hard to appreciate how “freeform”–sorry, the best word I can think of–the Corinthian gatherings would have been by comparison. 11:2–16). I was recently reading these verses, and I noticed that the NKJV includes an “And” at the beginning of 1 Corinthians 14:35. Interpretations and Applications of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35, Questions about how to implement 1 Timothy 2:12, Partnering Together: Paul’s Female Coworkers, Paul’s Personal Greetings to Women Ministers, Many women leaders in the Bible had this one thing in common. The word of God did not originate in Corinth, nor was it the only place that it came to. 14:39-40 CSB). Both of those things can be done in a way that honors the headship principle (cf. Paul wishes to emphasize that his teaching about male headship is not something that is good for some people but not for others. ... Egalitarian or Complementarian? Why was that a relevant consideration? 14:34-35, just disruptive speech which is disgraceful. He was not silencing all speech. 33-38 may have sounded like this; yes, I did this dramatic reading shamelessly in the class that evening. These verses were addressing specific problems rather than making broad and universal injunctions. When these women came to my parents’ church and gathered on the women’s side of the sanctuary, they thought this was a chance to catch up on the news with their neighbors and to ask questions about the story of Jesus they were hearing. 1 Peter 4:10 NIV. Remember what Paul just said in verses 29 and 32: 29 Let two or three prophets speak, and let the others weigh what is said… 32 and the spirits of prophets are subject to prophets. The “someone” you mention didn’t seem to factor in that a woman with a question can also ask a woman such as Lydia, Priscilla, Joanna or Mary Magdalene. There is no dilemma with 1 Timothy 2:11-15. And, “So then, my brothers and sisters, be eager to prophesy, and do not forbid speaking in other tongues. (For past articles on this topic, please see the 1 Corinthians 14 section). Because the spirits of prophets are subject to prophets. - 1 Corinthians 11:1-16. Still another interpolation is the story of the woman caught in adultery found John 7:53-8:11. In what ways have complementarian or egalitarian positions ... to the hierarchical structure within the Godhead. Thanks. Give Today. 14:30). Verses 34-35 are definitely the words of a faction of men who wrote him. We have been going through 1 Corinthians 14:34-35, the passage that appears to silence women in the church to see how carefully Paul has constructed his words in 1 Corinthians 14:36 to contradict the silencing in verses 34 & 35. My interpretation is grounded in the text. If a woman has a question about a prophecy, she should reserve all discussions for private conversations with her husband. Have you submitted your dissertation yet? 14:1ff), what is your interpretation of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 that doesn’t contradict these scriptures in 1 Corinthians? Why? The prophets, (like the tongues-speakers and the women) were to behave themselves and not be unruly, uncontrolled, or rebellious which is the opposite of being submissive. I have since taught the benefits of comparative reading of different translations. “Each of you should use whatever gift (charisma) you have received to serve others, as faithful stewards of God’s grace (charis) in its various forms. Indeed, he has already revealed that they are in fact praying and prophesying. (thoughts?) Hi Taylor, And we need to be very careful who we tell to be quiet, otherwise, we may be silencing the Spirit of God and quenching his gifts and power. And also, if some men were speaking a bit too much, it would not have been quite the same in the honour-shame culture as a woman speaking too much. No, these verses are original to Paul. 14:40). I was wondering, why do you think the women would have had more of a problem with asking disruptive questions than men? He had left the sages at Mars Hill stroking their beards saying, “we will hear thee again on this matter.” i.e. “The word of God came not unto you, wherefore forbid not to speak.”. She believes that if we are in Christ we are part of the New Creation and part of a community where old social paradigms of hierarchies and caste systems have no place (2 Cor. But to me it’s pretty clear hear what the Bible is saying and why. Thank you, that’s very helpful. But, does it forbid women from teaching, I don’t think so. By near consensus scholars of the Classics agree that Paul was one of the great users of language of all time. Not only this, but it is clear from Paul’s letter that there were divisions and factions among them. 14: 36) jumped out at me. 14:26 CSB; cf. ~ Why does Paul switch from plural language when correcting the bad behaviour of some men (plural) who had anger issues in 1 Timothy 2:8, and the bad behaviour of some women (plural) who were wearing opulent clothing in 1 Timothy 2:9-10, to singular language when correcting the bad behaviour of a woman (singular) who needed to learn and not teach or dominate a man (singular)? The reference to the Law points to this as well because Paul has repeatedly stated that Christians are not under Law but under grace. 34 Women should remain silent in … I don’t think there would have been much difference in education between the poorer people. Second, it would be a violation of headship for women to teach or to exercise authority in corporate worship. 14:33). You may unsubscribe at any time. “Wherefore,” his final conclusion from what goes before. Why? The only problem with this view is that every single Greek manuscript of 1 Corinthians that we have includes these verses. Her area of interest is the mutuality (equality) of men and women in Christian ministry and marriage. Those restrictions are intended to catalyze and cooperate with the work of the Holy Spirit in the assembly, not to quench it. Again, Paul is not against women speaking altogether. Many women leaders in the Bible had this one thing in common ; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law!!!??? So the most important thing is for each person to have a preferred reading that is egal. More on this here. ~ A prophet, male or female, is to be silent (sigaō) and stop prophesying if someone else receives a revelation (1 Cor. But then again, these verses my have been an interpolation, or Paul may have been quoting a faction who was getting it wrong. In other parts of his letter to the Corinthians, the apostle mentions vocal ministries (including prophecy and teaching, etc) and gives not the slightest hint that they are out of bounds for women (1 Cor. 1 Corinthians 14:16 The Greek word for inquirer is a technical term for someone not fully initiated into a religion; also in verses 23 and 24. Also, any injunction to “keep silent” cannot be viewed through the legalistic lens that many persons use in coming up with myriad rules and regulations that resemble the pharisaic definitions of “work” prohibited on the Sabbath. I happen to be a cessationist, which means that I do not believe that prophecy is an ongoing experience in Christ’s churches. It relates not properly to the individual, but to the whole body. Tag Archives: 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 Why We Are Egalitarian. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be in submission, as the Law also says. Whenever you come together, each one has a hymn, a teaching, a revelation, another tongue, or an interpretation. See Numbers 11:29 where in the Septuagint the same Greek words are employed for “envy” and “forbid” as here. So Paul puts limits on these ministers and their ministries. 2:11–15) should not be allowed to override this vision.. Your absolutely correct.  Richard B. Hays, First Corinthians, Interpretation (Louisville, KY: John Knox, 1997), 249. No man or woman is the head of the church except for Jesus. There were also likely unmarried/divorced women in attendance who had no husbands (or family members) to ask. Your comments do not seem to correspond with, or relate to, what I’ve written. I ask this question not with the typical condescending attitude of the Complementarian, but with a sincere desire to learn, and open ears to listen. After all, his central concern in 1 Corinthians 14 is for order and decency in the church’s worship. I know shame can mean cultural disgrace and not correspond to sin, but the word with shame in Colossians 3:8 and the mention of shameful gain in Titus 1:11 seem to show it can correspond to sin.  Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. Yes, there are quite a few scholars who have a high view of the inspiration and authority Scripture and who suggest 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 may be an interpolation (i.e. The Greek word translated as “a shame” is also used in Ephesians 5:11-12 —> «And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them. And I do like the KJV translation of verse 38. Even if this were true, Paul would exhort them in love and grace to refrain from talking during the service. Judy made an excellent point, that verse 36 is a refutation of the two previous verses. Though, one thing that I still don’t quite understand is why Paul would only silence uneducated women, and not uneducated and disruptive people in general. The closest approximation I can think of is some “charismatic”–another hackneyed term, unfortunately–services that allow a significant segment of time for prophesying, tongues with interpretations, or revelations along the lines of what Paul approves but with the caveat that everything must be orderly. 1 Corinthians 11:2-16, including verse 7, is all about honour/glory and shame/disgrace. I did the teacher’s gulp and stammered out the standard, “Let’s all read this in context and see what’s being said.” And whipped off a quick prayer… Being good readers they busily went through 1Cor. Listen to Pastor Robert Furrow as he continues his commentary on 1 Corinthians, starting today in 1 Corinthians chapter 11, verse 1. The word translated as “shameful” or “disgraceful” here, aischros, can have a range of intensities and nuances. The Corinthians need to pay attention to how the Spirit of God is moving and working in all the churches. Paul’s response to the Judaizers is: “What! If this interpretation is correct, then there are at least two implications that we should heed during worship with our own congregations. The next passage we must consider begins in 1 Corinthians 14:34: "Women should remain silent in the churches." 1 Corinthians 14:26-40, which contains verses 34-35, is book-ended by verses which show that the issue in Corinth was unruly, unedifying speech. This is very good. 11:5, Paul acknowledges that women pray and prophesy in Corinthian assemblies, and he does not silence them. 14:28 ESV). Paul writes. Paul does not silence all speech of all women in 1 Cor. 1 Cor 14 and 2 Timothy 2 are the only instances that can be cited in support of a view that women are to be silent in the church. or came it unto you only?”. 11:29), as the true pattern of emulation for each Christian believer. 6:16, 6:19, 11:22 and here.) And like I said previously, there were divisions and factions among them. If that is true, then the Corinthians ought to be honoring male headship just as all the other churches do. Gender, Hermeneutics, New Testament, Women, Egalitarian. I believe that verses 34-35 is a quote of a faction of men who wrote Paul. See here. What’s the point of prophesying if no one can hear you? Needless to say, along with babies crying and toddlers running about, the women’s section got rather noisy! They typically respond with something along the lines of, “In 1 Corinthians 14, Paul said that it is disgraceful for women to talk during church—that they shouldn't lift their voices; they should go home and ask their husbands; that husbands should teach their wives… and … Moses would, in his jealousy for God’s honor, have had all the people prophesy. Paul would have been so overjoyed to know that so many women were so thirsty for the gospel and would have appointed someone who was knowledgeable and trustworthy to teach them. And in 1 Corinthians 14:29, he says, "Two or three prophets should speak, and the others should weigh carefully what is said." Jesus plays down the significance of being first (“the first will be last”), as does Paul in 1 Corinthians 11:11-12. In the first century, practically every city in the Roman Empire, including Corinth, had a gymnasium. Col. 3:16 CSB). Michael is an educator, academic, and thought leader. Today, reading aloud God’s revelation from scripture is the functional equivalent of prophesying God’s revelation in Paul’s day. αἰσχρός, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 29. However, we do have a bit of a dilemma in 1Tim 2:11-14. " Conversely, sexism Clinebell states, "is a central cause of diminished and destructive marriages. When you come together, each of you has a hymn, or a word of instruction, a revelation, a tongue or an interpretation. It is clear that he is quoting from the Judaizers and their teaching of the Oral Law of the Jews (there is no Old Testament Law which demands that women be silent). Why wouldn’t he be gender-specific in each of his lists of spiritual gifts? But everything is to be done decently and in order” (1 Cor. Some of the wealthiest women in ancient societies were very well educated. Their meetings were being dominated and disrupted by certain people, men and women, who were speaking in tongues (1 Cor.  For Adam was first formed, then Eve. Remember that Paul begins his command with an appeal to how things are done “in all the churches” (v. 33b). 1 Corinthians 14:21 Isaiah 28:11,12; 1 Corinthians 14:34 Or peace. (More on this here.). The expression, “covet to prophesy,” deserves attention here. I see 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 and 1 Timothy 2:12 as dealing with certain kinds of undesirable speech. These women, especially if the church was meeting in their own home, would have had the social freedom, even the social expectation, to speak. (See here.). There are still more questions that can be asked about 1 Timothy 2:11-15 and about how to implement these verses. (The Apostle comes out of the gate with an attitude of firm insistence.). As I’ve said, I suspect the women who needed to be silent were asking too many basic questions in a disruptive manner, questions they could keep for home. Col. 3:16). Other versions leave you feeling that Paul has changed the subject mid-topic. (1 Cor. But I am saying a female house-church leader (someone like Chloe who was a relatively wealthy woman living in Corinth) would not have been silent in a church she hosted and cared for. We know there were some people in the Ephesian church who were teaching the law (the first five books of the Bible) but didn’t know what they were talking about.  In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array;  But (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works. Paul would not have refuted his own words. b) What specifically is the difference? Marg has a BTh from the Australian College of Ministries and an MA in early Christian and Jewish studies from Macquarie University. It baffles me that the #1 search term used to find The Junia Project blog is some version of “1 Timothy 2:8-15”. Your email address will not be published. On the contrary, he gives them instructions on how to do it in the right way—in a way that allows them to speak but that at the same time honors male headship. As Moses, having the gift himself, refused the jealousy that would restrict but expressed the zeal that would make universal the gift of prophecy. Among other things, that means that women may prophesy but that they may not judge prophesies (1 Cor. It was very clear to all in the living room as well as it must have been at cosmopolitan Corinth, that he had reached his limits. And he does not her permit her from domineering a man, probably her husband. Some of these households were led by a woman. De can be translated in a variety of ways. The word of God is abroad in the churches. all people). If Paul did not write 1 Corinthians 14:34-35, then the phrase "as in all the churches" could not have referred to "let the women keep silent". It just doesn’t feel grammatically coherent. If what Paul is warning against in 1 Corinthians 14:34 is just idle chitchat or unwelcome interruptions, without necessarily forbidding women to speak at all times, then why does the next verse state that it is “a shame” (αἰσχρὸν) for a woman to “speak” (λαλεῖν) in church? His approach also fails to read these verses in context. Hays not only posits a contradiction within scripture, but he also argues that readers need to choose which scripture is right and which is wrong. If they want to learn something, let them ask their own husbands at home, since it is disgraceful for a woman to speak in the church… This is not what the Bible actually says. He clearly does not agree with those two verses…and is taking the writers to task. Prophets are not only supposed to prophesy but also to evaluate other prophesies to see whether they are true. All we have to do is read the New Testament and see that non-related men and women spoke to each other. “However” doesn’t seem to fit the context. Instead, he gives them instructions about the appearance of their head/hair while they pray and prophecy. He acknowledges that they are praying out loud and prophesying out loud in the assembly (1 Cor. What happens if a husband prophesies, and his wife is a prophet as well? In these book-ended verses, Paul encourages edifying and gifted speech, and he encourages orderly participation in church meetings, regardless of gender (1 Cor. ~ Women are to be silent (sigaō) and stop asking questions if there is anything they want to learn (manthanō); they should keep their questions for home (1 Cor. 14:36 KJV) is one possible, and plausible, interpretation. Everything must be done so that the church may be built up” (cf. Immediately someone who had a side-by-side translation had an interesting comment. Verse 36 confirms that the word of God is not the exclusive domain of the Corinthian church. 27 times!!! Do you think this is an appropiate argument? 14. Only the men who had a Jewish background would have had the advantage of an education that involved learning about the true God. This teaching reflects Paul’s very practical concern for women who minister in churches and how they might do so in a way that honors headship. God’s word came to them and to all the other churches. I was reading your review of Dr. Smith’s “God’s Good Design,” and I was interested in the discussion about women’s negative speech. Still, there was a considerable number of relatively wealthy women in the first-century church (e.g., Lydia, Phoebe, Nympha). 12:1-31; 14:26, 40), and considering that Paul encourages all the Corinthian Christians to “Follow the way of love and eagerly desire gifts of the Spirit, especially prophecy” (1 Cor. However, if deception is the problem, women should not teach anyone. For starters, it would create a hopeless contradiction with what Paul says in 1 Corinthians 11:5, which indicates that women were “praying and prophesying” in the church. None of Paul’s lists of ministries in 1 Corinthians, or in Romans 12:6-8, or in Ephesians 4:11, give any hint that these ministries are only for men. Paul’s solution to this problem is that these women should ask their questions to their typically more-educated husbands later, in the privacy of their homes. The KJV doesn’t need any changes just different vocal inflection: v.33 “God is not the author of confusion… but of peace as in all the churches of the saints! First, a canonical approach to the restriction in 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 helps in articulating a biblical anthropology. The three calls for silence in 1 Corinthians 14 were each given in response to three specific “speaking” situations that were occurring during gatherings of churches in Corinth (1 Cor. The Corinthians were aware that their meetings were unruly (cf. ~ Why does Paul use a rare Greek verb in 1 Timothy 2:12 that doesn’t not refer to ordinary or healthy authority? There are several textual variants involving 1 Cor. “Let your women keep silence in the churches for it is not permitted unto them to speak!!!??? It also shows that their ministry was accepted and respected, and indeed that the ministry of women was not regarded as unusual.” From here. He does, however, command them to be silent whenever prophesies are being judged. Paul doesn’t rebuke their praying and prophesying in church. Being created first is not a prerequisite for any kind of Christian ministry. In churches associated with Paul, both gifted men and women could participate with prayers, prophecies, teaching, and speaking in other edifying ways. If you get a chance, you might want to see what Ben Witherington and Craig Keener say on this in my longer article. In my own church, this means that we have women praying and reading scripture in our weekly prayer meetings and in special services (at Easter in Christmas). But everything is to be done decently and in order. 14:26, 39-40 CSB). “Let your women keep silence, wherefore forbid not to speak with tongues.” But as a conclusion rendered in the plain language of a judicial statement, resting upon his reminder by a question that the word of God neither came from them nor upon them only, its fitness cannot be questioned. Let your women, &c. — The last clause of the preceding verse is by some critics, and among the rest Bishop Pearce, joined with this, so as to make this sense; as in all the churches of the saints, let your women keep silence in the churches, namely, of Achaia. Sometimes these homes were owned and run by women. It had been used in a sharply rhetorical sense (exclamatory) each time. 11:5). Why? And several of these ways, including the interpolation and quote interpretation, have validity and merit. In order to answer this, firstly, this work looks at how 1 Corinthians 14:33b-36 has been interpreted by three representative contemporary schools of interpretation: the literal traditional, feminist and egalitarian interpretations, and thus points out the importance of starting point in determining the meaning of the text. One small correction starting of the message says “..silence intelligent, godly and gifted women in church ” . How Does the Hope of Heaven Drive Missions? All of Paul’s instructions in 1 Corinthians 14:26-40 are designed to encourage edifying speech from spiritually-gifted speakers (1 Cor. 33-38 it was an easy do for this teacher of the Word. .”. So, please say “Godly women” with capital “G”. The NSRV translates each occurrence as “be silent”. Paul writes, 33b As in all the churches of the saints, 34 the women should keep silent in the churches. Paul does not want anything to happen during corporate worship that would upset the headship principle that he so carefully exhorted them to obey in 1 Cor. My preferred interpretation, which I don’t hold on to adamantly (because I don’t think we can know with 100% certainty) is based on a few keys words (they want to learn-μαθεῖν θέλουσιν, let them ask-ἐπερωτάτωσαν, ignorant-ἀγνοεῖ), plus the “ifs”. Surely it is possible both to maintain sexual distinction and promote sexual equality. Paul’s response shows that he did not write the verses 34-35…of why would he be responding to them in this manner? In Ch. They argue that some scribe must have come along after Paul and slipped these verses into Paul’s letter. 1 Corinthians 14:35 indicates the kind of speaking some women were engaging in; these women wanted to learn and were asking questions. Day. The traditional interpretation, of assuming Paul is prohibiting women from speaking in church for all time, takes this verse right out of the context in which it was given. Submission is also mentioned earlier in 1 Corinthians 14, in 1 Corinthians 14:31-32: The spirits of the prophets are to be in submission to the prophets. Mary and the Women in Matthew’s Genealogy of Jesus, Don Carson and Tim Keller on “I Do Not Permit a Woman to Teach”. There are a handful of manuscripts in which the verses appear after verse 40. Paul wasn’t too shabby in the big leagues. Should You Talk About Heaven When You Share the Gospel? So to say that Paul would have silenced women (for asking questions about Jesus Christ), and then place them under a Law (when he repeatedly says that we are under grace), and then tell them to ask their (unsaved, uneducated, divisive) husbands at home is, for me, an impossibility. “Just like Corinth” for sure. I believe the KJV has the correct word in the initial response in verse 36 when it uses the word “What?” followed by the rhetorical question, making sense that “you only” is speaking about men, and not the Corinthian church, seeing as he was talking about women. Another interpolation, which has some variants, is a longer ending of the Gospel of Mark. Hello Anth, It’s a good thing to explain what Bible passages mean. Paul was silencing unedifying and unruly speech in the Corinthian church in 1 Corinthians 14:26-40. Surprisingly for me, a few Christians are still using 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 to silence intelligent, godly, and gifted women in church meetings. This would effect half the church in how they use their spiritual gifts. And Eve being deceived is not an impediment for ministry, including teaching ministry. So sometimes it’s translated as “now” or it’s left untranslated. If Paul encouraged the men (who were angrily arguing) in love and grace, then why wouldn’t he do the same if women were asking questions about Jesus Christ? Single. This is my view of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 in a nutshell. The Greek word translated as ‘speak’ here is λαλεῖν, and I can’t find a single ocurrence of this word in the new testament that even hints to “idle chatting”: http://biblehub.com/greek/lalein_2980.htm. So based on what do you claim that Paul only prohibits speaking under certain circumstances, and not all? I take 1 Timothy 2:11-15 in the Greek literally, and I take it seriously. Aischros is “a term especially significant in honor-shame oriented society” (such as the first-century Greco-Roman world) and it generally refers “to that which fails to meet expected moral and cultural standards.” Other articles in the In a Nutshell Series. What they were doing was wrong and it would have brought to shame on their husbands. We say again, one is almost compelled to believe that in all three of these passages where the Apostle makes such striking use of the word “covet” (12:31; 14:1; and 14:39), he has direct reference to Moses’ desire that all the people of God should be prophets (Num. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be in submission, as the Law also says. 1 Corinthians 14:34. Catherine Bushnell’s chapter on this passage in the booklet “Covet to Prophesy” is excellent: Her logic is compelling: Paul has just urged the Corinthians (both men and women) to “strive for the spiritual gifts, and especially that you may prophesy.” How can he, a few verses later, say that all women should be silent in Church? Paul provides the solution: they should ask their husbands at home. And none of these are in the context of idle chitchat. Denny Burk is a Professor of Biblical Studies at Boyce College, the undergraduate school of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky. On the contrary, he wishes for them to do it in a way that honors male headship (1 Cor. The modernist approach often assumes an Enlightenment egalitarian or “single” anthropology. And his overall concern in these verses is that “everything must be done so that the church may be built up” (1 Cor. I fully acknowledge that there are several ways that 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 can be interpreted. The interpretation of 1 Corinthians 14:34–35 has proven to be more than a little controversial over the years.  In this case, the judgment of prophecies is tantamount to teaching, which Paul absolutely prohibits in 1 Timothy 2:12. come back later. Obviously, this instruction applies to husbands who knew more than their wives, and hints that some women were poorly educated. Everyone else is observing male headship. I looked this verse up in an interlinear and saw that the Greek word “de” was in 1 Corinthians 14:35, and I found out that it can be translated as “however, on the other hand”, etc. We also know that there were some strange versions of Adam and Eve circulating in the early church. It would be like allowing them to teach and to exercise authority—something that he clearly prohibits in 1 Timothy 2:12: “I do not allow a woman to teach or exercise authority over a man, but to remain quiet.”. Are specifically addressed than a little controversial over the years taken seriously, you will receive content & from! Most well-known interpolation, here that he did not silence all the men who were praying and prophesying and not! List of ministries for men and women who pray and prophecy textual clues the!, up to then, had to be taken seriously, you might want to more. Churches today he literally says, “ if they had questions according to Paul, women! 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